: 14 2010
Zhezkazgan city is located on the ancient earth of Saryarka, which basic territory are boundless plains and valleys which form enormous and vast steppe. Therefore at the numerous people Saryarka has received the name of Great steppe from immemorial time. It is often spoken of, it is named «gold steppe» or « gold planet». The largest nearest mountains are the Ulytau (1195 m.), from the hillside of the Ulytau originate the Kara- Kengir river and its inflows, and the also Sary-Kengir, the Zhylandy and the Zhezdy running in the Sarysu.
It is the copper region. In a vegetable cover are combined cereal - wormwood, wormwood and salt wormwood complexes on light-chestnut and brown soils.
Climate here sharply continental and droughty. The territory is subject to influence of dusty storms. Winter is cold and summer is hot and dry. Spring and autumn is short. High degree of continentality and sharply expressed dryness, are explained first of all by remoteness from oceans and the seas. Duration of the vegetative period and quantity of solar heat allows to cultivate many crops: spring-sown field, corn, various vegetables.
The fauna here is very rich: totals 60 species of mammals, 200 birds, 20 species of fish. The wolf, fox, a light polecat, a badger, caress, an ermine, a hamster, a hare a white hare are everywhere widespread. In reservoirs there is a muskrat.
Zhezkazgan is called a copper pearl of the country. The history of the city is inseparably linked with combine history. First inhabitants of Zhezkazgan only fifty years ago the small settlement were his builders and miners.
In 1771 the Central Kazakhstan was visited expedition of baron Traubenberg. One of participants of expedition captain Nikolay Rychkov in the diary wrote that in vicinities of Ulytau mountains the great variety of copper ores, ancient inhabitants of that country is revealed "; also find signs of gold and silver ore".
In 1847 the Ekaterinburg merchant Nikon Ushakov for 400 rubles rented the huge area on which copper signs were found in the cattle-farmer of Batyr Bakasin. But Ushakov, then Ryazanova had no enough means for investigation and development of the richest copper deposits. Zhezkazgan, as well as many other mineral deposits of Russia at the beginning of the XX century, appeared in hands of the foreign share capital.
In 1909 British got the Zhezkazgan field at Ryazanov and in the spring of 1913 began a preparatory work for construction of copper-smelting plant and concentrating factory in Karsakpai.
October revolution put an end to a heading of capitalists of local and overseas. The people became the owner of the riches.
After civil war in June, 1925 the Atbasar trust of non-ferrous metals which included Karsakpay combine is organized and in November, 1928 the Karsakpay copper-smelting plant gave out the first production.
At the same time near Zhezkazgan prospecting works were widely developed. On the basis of these scouts of a subsoil scientific session of Academy of Sciences of the USSR in November, 1934 recognized the Zhezkazgan copper-ore field the first on stocks in the country.
Researches of the route of the railroad began summer of 1935 and next year its construction was begun. On the eve of celebration of the XX anniversary of October the railroad 400 kilometers long was brought to Zhezkazgan.
In 1940 construction of powerful operational mines "Pokro-Centre", "Petro-Centre" and a reservoir began.
The combine grew and together with the settlement of builders and the operators, based in 1938 grew and equipped with modern conveniences. New houses were under construction, cultural and household establishments, agricultural production round the Zhezkazgan industrial region was organized.
Treacherous attack of fascist Germany to the Soviet Union suspended construction of Big Zhezkazgan. All forces, all attention of citizens was directed on increase in output. For years of the II World War production of copper ore was increased several times.
For dedicated work of workers, technical officers and employees in the period of the Great Patriotic War of 1941 - 1945 to Zhezkazgan combine of 16 times the passing Red banner of the State committee of defense was awarded. This banner for merits before the Homeland is left to combine on eternal storage.
After the victorious termination of Patriotic war complex development of combine proceeded prompt rates. In 1947 construction of the Zhezkazgan concentrating factory which three sections were put in operation in 1954 is begun. In 1955 the fourth section for processing of ore became operational.
Unrecognizably Big Zhezkazgan changed. In 10 years 108 thousand square meters of living space, Palace of culture, 4 schools, 8 kindergartens and a day nursery, some hospitals and shops, a bakery, the refrigerator here were constructed, about 100 kilometers of the railroads, over 150 thousand square meters of concrete roads are laid, 215 kilometers of water and sewer pipes are laid, put into operation plant of the ferroconcrete products, two asphalt concrete plants.
The decree of Presidium of the Supreme Council Kazakh SSR of December 20, 1954 the working settlement Big Zhezkazgan in which by this time lived more than 30 thousand people, was transformed to the city of Zhezkazgan.
In seven years the second concentrating factory, combined heat and power plant, some mines, among them mine the giant No. 55, the largest pit of open works became operational. Also the meat-processing plant, dairy plant, knitting factory were constructed. The living space of well-planned multi-storey buildings made 383 thousand square meters.
Especially citizens are proud of the ore mining and smelting combine by name of the first president of Academy of Sciences of Kazakh SSR Kanysh Imantaevich Satpaev.
Education and culture networks are developed too. One of the first the city of Zhezkazgan mastered television. The evening faculty of the Karaganda polytechnical institute transformed in 1992 to mining technological institute was open. Later on the basis of this institute and Zhezkazgan teacher training college the present Zhezkazgan university was open by O.A.Baykonurova.
Special significance was attached to physical culture and sports development. Three stadiums worked. The soccer teams "Miner", "Metallurgist", "Enbek" became more than once champions of the republic, took prizes in the second league of teams of those times. Fishing on Sarysu and Zhezdy rivers developed. The city in the steppe was planted trees and shrubs and connected to all working settlements and their subsidiary farms the asphalted roads, the modern airport was constructed.
In 1973 the city Zhezkazgan became the center of again organized Zhezkazgan area. The city rendered the big help in formation of the Ulytau area. The city began to develop roughly at the expense of creation of the regional organizations. Construction of Zhezkazgan copper-smelting plant came to the end, the concentrating factory No. 3 was constructed, new giant mines were constructed.
During formation of market economy of sovereign Kazakhstan for preservation, restoration and further development of an ore mining and smelting complex with all its auxiliary enterprises there was a question of attraction of investments. In compliance with strategy of restoration, stabilization and lifting of the national economy developed by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan by N.A.Nazarbaev in the republic I was foreign investors are invited. The South Korean firm "Samsung" known in world economic system which allocated over 200 million US dollars in 1995 became the strategic partner. It allowed to carry out fundamental change in life of head enterprise of Zhezkazgan. In short terms Zhezkazgan miners, dressers and metallurgists have new opportunities of an exit from the created situation, and in mining business there was a rearmament. In 1998 the Kazakhmys corporation worked according to the full production program. In parallel the state enterprise "Zhezkazganredmet" which is letting out especially
Today Kazakhmys corporation - the enterprise of truly modern type conforming to all requirements of economic reforms in Kazakhstan and market laws. The corporation became the largest producer of copper among CIS countries, and on output enters into number of world leaders. Distinctive feature of effective activity of corporation is its transformation in diversified and self-providing, vertically - the integrated company where there is the coal, the electric power, strong ore base, huge concentrating repartition and copper-smelting plants.
Since 2000 growth of welfare of the city, restoration and expansion of its infrastructure was observed. With direct participation, financial and technical support of Kazakhmys corporation are completely reconstructed: city stadium "Metallurgist", “The first builders” Square.
Now construction of a branch line "Zhezkazgan — Saksaul — Shalkar — Beyneu" which has to become part of other project — a transit corridor "border of China — Aktau port — Baku — Georgia — Turkey — the countries of Europe" is conducted. The master plan of a development of the city till 2035 was accepted and approved.